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Pete Seeger’s contribution to ‘We Shall Overcome’

Lowery sings We Shall Overcome 580x362 Pete Seegers contribution to We Shall Overcome

The Rev. Joseph E. Lowery (with microphone) leads the singing of “We Shall Overcome” during his 90th birthday celebration Oct. 9, 2011 at the Atlanta Symphony Hall. From left, Josh DuBois, Cicely Tyson, Evelyn Lowery, Lowery, the Rev. Al Sharpton, Stevie Wonder and Soledad O’Brien. A UMNS photo by Kathleen Barry.

Pete Seeger, singer, songwriter and social activist, died Monday, Jan. 27 at the age of 94. He played a crucial role in adapting and popularizing “We Shall Overcome,” an anthem of the U.S. Civil Rights Movement that many congregations will sing during Black History Month.

By C. Michael Hawn*

2010 Pete Seger by John Goodwin 290x436 Pete Seegers contribution to We Shall Overcome

Pete Seeger performs at age 91 at the 2010 Clearwater Folk Festival. A UMNS photo by John C. Goodwin.

We shall overcome,
we shall overcome,
we shall overcome someday!
Oh, deep in my heart I do believe
we shall overcome someday!
– “We Shall Overcome,” African American Spiritual, The United Methodist Hymnal, No. 533

“We Shall Overcome” is a simple musical composition with complex origins. Songs that are transmitted by oral tradition develop a life of their own. They survive because they are portable — they can be sung easily without musical notation. They survive because they are adaptable — they can be modified on the spot to fit circumstances as they arise. They survive because they give voice to a movement — their identity is unified with the aspirations of people. These attributes supersede concerns of origins in many ways.

That said, how do we get this song that is synonymous with the African American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968)? Some ascribe its origins to a gospel hymn by Methodist preacher, Charles Albert Tindley (1851-1953) who ministered in Philadelphia at the turn of the twentieth century and penned 45 songs for his congregation. It is tempting to credit the lyrical origins of “We Shall Overcome” to the refrain of Tindley’s “I’ll Overcome Some Day”:

I’ll overcome some day,
I’ll overcome some day;
If in my heart I do not yield
I’ll overcome some day.

However, the Rev. Carlton Young and others have pointed out that, though some words are in common, there is no metrical or melodic similarity between the two songs.

Another theory posed by Australian hymnologist Wesley Milgate is that “We Shall Overcome” is based on a spiritual derived from the tune of “The Sicilian Mariner’s Hymn to the Virgin.” This tune, SICILIAN MARINERS, may be found in “The United Methodist Hymnal” as Hymn 671. As Young points out, the first eight measures bear a striking resemblance to the music of “We Shall Overcome.” Slaves may have heard the seafaring hymn sung by sailors during the middle passage from Africa via England and on to America and adapted it. William McClain, preaching professor at Wesley Theological Seminary, affirms the roots of the song in slavery, but notes, “it is not known exactly how many or which of the verses of this song originated with the slaves.”

When asked the origins of the song in an interview by Wendy Schuman in 2011, Pete Seeger responded: “Nobody knows exactly who wrote the original. The original was faster.”

The song was published in 1947 in the “People’s Song Bulletin”  through the efforts of folk song activist Pete Seeger (1919-2014) with an introduction by musician and community activist Zilphia Horton (1910-1956) who, with her husband Miles Horton, were the founders of the Highlander Folk School in 1932, a training school for union organizers in New Market, Tenn. She is credited for adapting songs such as “We Shall Overcome,” “This Little Light of Mine,” and “We Shall Not Be Moved” to the Civil Rights Movement. By the time of its publication in 1947, Young states, “the song emerged from the African American oral tradition and became a protest song of both segregated and integrated labor unions.”

Guy Carawan (b. 1927), a white folk musician and musicologist trained at the Highlander Folk School, introduced the song, according to Julian Bond, to the Civil Rights Movement by teaching it to the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in Raleigh, N.C., in 1960. The song was then picked up by folk singers such as Joan Baez (b. 1941) in the early 1960s and sung at protest rallies, folksong festivals, and concerts where it became identified with and adapted for the Civil Rights Movement with new stanzas.

When asked the origins of the song in an interview by Wendy Schuman in 2011, Pete Seeger responded: “Nobody knows exactly who wrote the original. The original was faster.” He then sings, “I’ll be alright, I’ll be alright, I’ll be alright, someday … deep in my heart I do not weep, I’ll be alright someday.” Seeger notes other variants such as, “I’ll wear the crown, I’ll wear the crown,” and “I’ll be like Him, I’ll be like Him” or “I’ll overcome, I’ll overcome.”

Recent scholarship by Isaias Gamboa in “We Shall Overcome: Sacred Song on the Devil’s Tongue” (2012) focuses on the gospel song “If My Jesus Wills” by Louise Shropshire (1913-1993), an African American Baptist choir director, who composed her song in the 1930s, published it in 1942, and copyrighted it in 1954. The lyrics of this close friend of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. bear a stronger resemblance to the song we know:

I’ll Overcome, I’ll Overcome, I’ll Overcome Someday
If My Jesus Wills, I Do Believe, I’ll Overcome Someday

In a more recent interview with Pete Seeger in 2012, he affirms, “It’s very probable” that Louise Shropshire taught “If my Jesus Wills” to Zilphia Horton, the person who taught Seeger the song. Seeger acknowledges that Louise Shropshire “should be added to the story” of “We Shall Overcome.”

Perhaps the most significant citation of this song was that of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., in his final speech on March 31, 1968, in Memphis: “We shall overcome. We shall overcome. Deep in my heart I do believe we shall overcome. And I believe it because somehow the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends towards justice.”

The adaption and adoption of this song has been widespread including its use in Northern Ireland by Catholics seeking equal rights in 1968, anti-communist movements during the Cold War, and by college students in the Indian state of Kerela in 1970s protesting communism.

Recent film appearances include the 2010 Bollywood movie “My Name Is Khan” comparing the struggle of Muslims in the United States with that of African Americans. Even more recently, the song plays a prominent role in Lee Daniel’s film “The Butler” (2012). Film producer Simon Sheffield discovered Gamboa’s book in tracking down the copyright to the song. Discovering the story of Lousie Shropshire, Sheffield contacted Gamboa, and eventually Shropshire’s grandson, Robert Anthony Goins Shropshire. Additional research was commissioned by Sheffield leading to further recognition of Lousie Shropshire’s role in the composition of this song. Film director Lee Daniels received the We Shall Overcome Foundation’s Oscar Micheaux Freedom Award on Sept. 27, 2013 for his role in acknowledging Shropshire.

Perhaps the most significant citation of this song was that of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., in his final speech on March 31, 1968, in Memphis: “We shall overcome. We shall overcome. Deep in my heart I do believe we shall overcome. And I believe it because somehow the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends towards justice.”

While the history of “We Shall Overcome” is complex, the legacy of this song still is being lived out. Like the South African Freedom Songs of the antiapartheid protests in South Africa during the same time, “We Shall Overcome” attests to the power of song to focus a movement, unite those suffering oppression and offer hope.

 

*Hawn is distinguished professor of church music at Southern Methodist University’s Perkins School of Theology and director of the seminary’s sacred music program. He regularly writes the History of Hymns, which is a joint project with the United Methodist Board of Discipleship. This column will be published on the Board of Discipleship website on Feb. 13.

10 comments

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  1. Jeanne Rozman

    Pete Seeger was truly a real patriot, an activist in the best sense of the word. I wish there were more people with his spirit of conscience, love, concern for the environment, and spirit of inclusiveness. No, he was not religious but very spiritual. May the memory of,his spirit encourage us still here on the earth plane to work harder than ever for peace and justice for ALL of God’s people.

  2. Dave Chnupa

    Pete Seeger’s “Where Have All The Flowers Gone?” might address current divisiveness in the UMC. “We Shall Overcome” and spread the message of love as taught by Jesus.

  3. Mark

    Seegar was probably the best Communist songwriter we’ve yet seen…the Gulag Archipelego proved most inconvenient…had he been born in the system he seemed to admire most–Marxism–we would not know who he is and he would have never seen anything close to the ripe old age of 94…but he was a free spirit and a talented man. RIP, Mr. Seegar.

    1. Heather Hahn

      Here is a link to Seeger’s testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee: http://www.slate.com/blogs/browbeat/2014/01/28/pete_seeger_huac_transcript_full_text_of_anti_communist_hearing_courtesy.html?wpisrc=burger_bar

      1. C. Michael Hawn

        Thanks Heather for including this transcript. I have written nearly 500 columns under the title of History of Hymns in nearly ten years. In some few cases, I become obsessed with the story and keep digging. This is one I could not let go of for some time. This particular chapter in Pete’s life is one that I wanted to mention, but had to let it go as I was already 400-500 words over my usual entry. Maybe in another forum, I’ll have the opportunity to go even deeper in this wonderful example of how song can galvanize a movement and unite a disparate group who is under threat for a just cause. The connection between South African Freedom Songs and the music of the Civil Rights Movement, though very different musical styles, are great examples of this in two struggles for human dignity and basic freedoms that were unfolding simultaneously in our world thousands of miles apart.

  4. Daniel Love Glazer

    C. Michael Hawn’s account is good, but he passes lightly over “We Shall Overcome” as a union song. In the late 1940’s, Joe Glazer, a staff member of the Textile Workers Union, sang it all over the South to union audiences as “We Will Overcome.” Hope Moskowitz’s documentary “Labor’s Troubadour” contains footage of a big outdoor strike rally in Rome, Georgia, in which Glazer leads hundreds of white textile workers singing “We Will Overcome.” The 1960 book “Songs of Work and Freedom,” by Glazer and Edith Fowke, includes the union version of “We Will Overcome,” before it became adapted by the Civil Rights movement.

  5. C. Michael Hawn

    You are so right Daniel. I just found a link with an Seeger interview that says he found a version in the United Mine Workers Journal in 1909 that seems to cite the song. The saga continues . . . Obviously there is more to do to uncover the way this song has touched and changed so many.

  6. Maxine Allen

    Thanks for recognizing that the African American oral tradition is indeed valid in dating materials. So often the diasporan tradition for Black folk in the US is discounted by Christians who at the same time spend much of their time teaching/preaching a Jewish diasoran tradition. Additionally, thanks for recognizing the work of the folk at Highlander Folk Center (now Highlander Research and Education) who have worked tirelessly to preserve “We Shall Overcome”.

  7. Carol Green

    On Tuesday’s freezing day, as we crushed into Knoxville’s federal court rotunda, “If I Had a Hammer” filled the space with Pete Seeger’s spirit. We were there to go through security to witness the sentencing hearing of the Transform Now Plowshares trio. Megan Rice, Michael Walli, and Greg Boretji-Obed crossed into the Y-12 nuclear weapons plant.in Oak Ridge to post “Biblical graffiti”. They symbolically hammered on the bomb material storehouse of the U.S. Guy and Candie Carawan are a part of the Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance’s peace community. The movement of the Spirit grows!

  8. David Topping

    Thanks for this article Michael. Regarding Mr. Gamboa’s research, I find it quite offensive that he referred to Pete Seeger and the others who eventually copyrighted “We Shall Overcome” as “devils.” I’ve been watching the series of over-the-top, tabloid style, sensational videos published by Isaias Gamboa on YouTube (his channel is at https://www.youtube.com/user/isaiasmusic), including some in which an “ambush interview” was staged at Pete Seeger’s house in 2012 (you appear to cite that video above). Mr. Gamboa’s hyperbole makes it sound like Seeger (and others) had intentionally “stolen” this song from Ms. Shropshire and passed it off as their own, which is far from the truth. In the interview at Seeger’s house, he pointed out that Shropshire’s song is not very melodically similar to We Shall Overcome. Also, on the We Shall Overcome Foundation’s blog, Mr. Gamboa says some very ignorant and hateful things in an entry titled “Pete Seeger’s Communist Confession” (here: http://www.weshallovercomefoundation.org/blog.php?s=pete-seegers-communist-confession). As you’ve shown in this article, the origins of the song are complicated, but Mr. Gamboa’s crusade against Seeger and others is not very honorable, in my opinion.

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